Calluses formation is a protective phenomenon in which variable size of skin thickening in the sole areas to protect underlying tissue from unwanted pressure and frictional impact in various weight bearing regions of foot insole. It is different from corns.
Calluses are larger rounded flat skin thickenings, generally painless while corns are small painful hard cone shaped bumps of skin. The former develops heels or balls of sole region while the latter develops on corner or top of toes. Both are develop to protect underlying tissues from friction and pressure.
An unwanted pressure in specific region of foot due to altered biomechanics of foot leads to development of such protective skin thickenings (corns and calluses). It has been observed that diabetics with foot neuropathy develop such regions and might get infected, if left untreated. On the other hand, warts and cysts could be other causes. Doctor’s diagnosis is usually to understand the cause and removal of cause with symptomatic care is always recommended.
The soaking of such regions in warm water reduces its size followed by clearing it with pumice stones (however not recommended if a person is diabetic) followed by application of moisturizer. Wearing of artificial cushioned functional orthotics to prevent the cause of unwanted pressure in the weight bearing regions, thereby alleviates pressure and recurrence rate. Socks should be cotton=polyester blend to keep moisture away. Salicylic acid drops with applicators are available to manage if self-treatment is not providing appropriate relief. Antibiotic treatment is recommended for infected sites.
Such thickenings are very painful and inflamed and in case of a diabetic person, small injuries are difficult to heal. If self-treatment procedures are failed, doctor’s can trim these thickening by scalpel (self-application of such procedures is strictly prohibited) and application of antibiotics will help. Surgery is rarely required. Artificial cushioned orthotics is recommended for preventing it to become injury to foot.
The ball of foot area extended towards toes (metatarsal region) is weight bearing support region in fore foot which is affected in different way in various types of foot. Thus metatarsal support orthotics can provide artificial cushion to this area, thereby reducing pressure on top skin. Sometimes it is accompanied with corn in big toe as toes are also affected due to alteration in gait cycle. In such cases, Toe spreader (D) with Metatarsal cushion is recommended. In case, there is bunion also, Toe and Metatarsal Protector is recommended.
For preventing the cause of occurrence of calluses in metatarsal region, refer to metatarsalgia. The hind foot pains / heel pains are also accompanied by calluses require heel support care products i.e, heel pad, heel pad (pando), heel cup and heel device. The falling of arches is responsible for pressure in unwanted regions, necessary arch support should be provided.
Bed sores are generally observed in those who remain confined in same position for long periods like comatose patient. Patients in coma rely on their caretakers for movement. If there is friction or pressure on a specific area of the body (usually bony areas), pressure ulcers lead to formation of sores if the patient is not repositioned. The major body parts usually affected due to such ulceration include elbows, knees, ankles, heels, and the lower back. They are entirely treatable, but also preventable if taken properly as well as pressure dispersing orthotic supporting devices are used.
Non-mobility with continuous pressure on the skin or pre-existing health conditions like blood circulation issues, weakened patient’s immune system and poor hygiene leads to worsening of patient in coma.
Mattresses Gel Overlays and OT Positioning Devices are recommended.